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2013 March 10

c/7 orthogonal spaceship

Josh Ball has discovered a microscopic orthogonal spaceship with a new velocity, namely c/7. It is the slowest orthogonal spaceship, which (together with its loaf-pushing behaviour) led to it being named 'the loafer'. Adam P. Goucher discovered how to synthesise it with 18 gliders; this was further reduced to 8 by Matthias Merzenich. Shortly afterwards, a gun was engineered to repeatedly emit the spaceship.

A summary of the known orthogonal spaceship speeds is given in the following diagram, using Ford circles to represent rational numbers:


2009 May 31

New c/6 Spaceships

56P6H1V0 158P6H1V0 From Harmut Holzwart are some new Period 6 spaceships which move at c/6. The first is the smallest at this speed currently known. The larger is a variation on a ship previously found by Paul Tooke.

2009 March 08

New c/6 Extensible Spaceship

Paul Tooke's c/6 front-sparking spaceshipWith a month-long search using a customized version of the 'gfind' search program in October of last year, Paul Tooke completed a new c/6 spaceship based on a flexible self-supporting pushalong component supplied by Hartmut Holzwart.

The pushalong component can follow behind another copy of itself and supply the necessary sparks to keep it going -- surprisingly, three different phases work equally well, as shown in the right-hand spaceship in the diagram.

A very unusual feature of this spaceship is that it has a strong central forward spark, and it travels slowly enough to allow this spark to interact with other objects without destroying the spaceship. Many types of spaceships have side sparks that can be used to modify or clean up other objects in passing. But this new c/6 can simply run right over the top of some still lifes, small oscillators, and constellations, and continue unharmed -- as the left-hand spaceship demonstrates.

Continue reading "New c/6 Extensible Spaceship" More

2008 April 24

New 2c/5 Greyships

long thin 2c/5 greyship variants: Hartmut Holzwart, 21 Feb 2008
Hartmut Holzwart has successfully completed several families of 2c/5 greyships, based on recent searches:

2c/5 greyship examples: Hartmut Holzwart, 26 Feb 2008

more 2c/5 greyships
Hartmut Holzwart, 29 Feb 2008 (corrected 3 Mar 2008)

Continue reading "New 2c/5 Greyships" More

2008 January 27

New 2c/5 Spaceship

P68H5V0 Harmut Holzwart has found an new Period 5 2c/5 Spaceship.

P150 2c/5 Pseudo-Rake Nicolay Beluchenko then found that a spark from this object could be used to convert Lightweight Spaceships into Gliders. He used this reaction to create the Period 150 Pseudo-Rake shown here. The Spacehip Gun at the bottom generates a stream where each spaceship becomes a forward-moving Glider.

2008 January 06

New Spaceship Flotilla and Constructions

New 50P20H10V0 Victor Pecanins noticed that a previously known Spaceship escorted flotilla (42P20H10V0) could have its central element extended by several bits.

Construct 42P20H10V0 Mark Niemiec then came up with constructions for both these flotillas. And as he points out, there are certainly more variations with different length ships out there. Construct 50P20H10V0

2007 October 06

Spaceship constructions

Jason Summers has found some new spaceship constuctions. These are the type where a pair of Lightweight or Middleweight Spaceships are used to escort a togalong or or other unstable engine.

32P4H2V0.5 Construction First is a way to build a 32 bit Period 4 Spaceship which consists of an "A" tagalong supported by a pair of Lightweight Spaceships [32P4H2V0.5], constructed by firing thirteen Gliders into a pair of Fishhook Eaters and a Boat.

32P20H10V0.1 Construction Next is a construction that uses eleven Gliders to build a 32 Bit Period 20 Spaceship which consists of a B-Heptomino Engine supported by a pair of Lightweight Spaceships and a Glider [32P20H10V0.1]. The Glider tagalong suppresses a very messy exhaust from a period 20 engine, turning it into simple Spaceship.

2006 December 10

New c/4 Diagonal Spaceships

New P4H1V1 spaceships Nicolay Beluchenko has found a few more new Period 4 diagonal c/4 spaceships.

2006 August 12

c/5 Diagonal Twin Tubeater

c/5 Diagonal Twin Tubeater Nicolay Beluchenko has found a Period 5 c/5 diagonal tubeater. Shown here is a Period 4 c/4 tubstretcher forming a growing spaceship.

2006 July 15

New c/5 Diagonal Spaceships

New c5 Diagonal spaceships Nicolay Beluchenko has found a few new c/5 Diagonal spaceships, including one, at 67 bits, which is the smallest currently known.

2006 May 11

New Wave Spaceship Update

new c/4 diagonal spaceships: Nicolay Beluchenko, 7 April 2006
Nicolay Beluchenko and Hartmut Holzwart have created some interesting new spaceships of various shapes and sizes, by tying together pieces of new and previously known waves and wave terminations.

orthogonal c/4 (and 5c/2 and p36/9) wick, stabilized at c/4
Hartmut Holzwart, 16 Feb 2006

new terminations for Hartmut Holzwart's wave from March 2006
Nicolay Beluchenko, 7 April 2006

front and back joints for a moving (c/4 diagonal) wick posted by
Hartmut Holzwart, producing a stabilized modular c/4 spaceship.
Nicolay Beluchenko, 21 March 2006

smaller front stabilization for orthogonal c/4 wick
Nicolay Beluchenko, 17 Feb 2006

t-tetson pushalong: Nicolay Beluchenko, 17 Feb 2006

Here are separate commented files for Beluchenko's previous wave-based spaceships in this series, from 7 April 2006, posted last month in a combined pattern:

spaceship made with wave ends
terminations for Hartmut Holzwart's second wave from March 2006
shorter front termination of Hartmut Holzwart's March wave
new wave composed of pieces of previously known waves

2006 April 09

Misc. New Oscillators and Spaceships

32P20H10V0 Jason Summers has found a simple new way to stabilize one of the first known puffer trains, the Period 20 B-Heptomino Puffer Train, turning it into a small 2c/4 Period 20 Spaceship.

Period 4 Snowflake Agar Nicolay Beluchenko has found a way to stablize the edges and corners of the Period 4 Snowflake Agar, allowing the creation of Period 4 Oscillators.

Period 4 Snowflake Agar Other components exist, which can be used to create these simplest forms of the agar oscillator.

c/4 wave spaceship Nicolay Beluchenko found a way to terminate some c/4 Waves found earlier by Hartmut Holzwart, allowing for the creation of a variety of spaceships.

2006 March 07

New P2 Oscillators

c/6 orthogonal spaceship Paul Tooke's spaceship searches have come up with a new c/6 Orthogonal Spaceship.

2006 March 01

Antstretchers and tubeaters

c/4 diagonal antstretcher, with an anteater of the same speed
Nicolay Beluchenko, 5 January 2006
After a long search, Nicolay Beluchenko has successfully found an 'antstretcher' pattern to match his previously discovered 'anteater'. Individual ants in the 'ants' wick supported between these two structures have an apparent speed of travel equal to the speed of light. Ants can either follow one another exactly, or can be offset by either one or two cells; in this case, the speed of the antstretcher and anteater dictate a one-cell offset between ants.

smaller version of antstretcher
Hartmut Holzwart, 11 Jan 2006
slightly different version of original antstretcher, using a
known small ship (shown on the left) to complete the pattern
Hartmut Holzwart, 11 Jan 2006

Glide-symmetric double antstretcher and a 90-bit spaceship
Nicolay Beluchenko, 5 January 2006

c/4 diagonal combined antstretcher and tubstretcher
Nicolay Beluchenko, 7 January 2006
Another new combination that has turned up is a connection between a tubstretcher and a tubeater, producing the interesting object at right. Further exploration of tubstretchers and tubeaters yielded the collection of new adjustable-length spaceships (and a puffer) shown below.

component allowing the construction of a tubstretcher/eater series
Nicolay Beluchenko, 15 January 2006
standard blinker puffer version of Nicolay Beluchenko's tubeaters
Hartmut Holzwart, 13 Jan 2006

pairs of known c/4 diagonal spaceship components can eat tub wicks:
Nicolay Beluchenko, 13 January 2006
three more variants of single and double tubeaters
Nicolay Beluchenko, 13 January 2006

2005 December 11

Object Miscellany

Here a number of new Game of Life objects discovered in the past few months, in no particular order:

2005-12-11-P360-spaceship.rle A Period 360 c/5 spaceship found by David Bell. Removing one or two of the circulating gliders gives a Period 1080 spaceship instead

2005-12-11-20P3.rle Nicolay Beluchenko has found a 20 bit variant on a known Period 3 oscillator.

2005-12-11-P7-osc.rle Scot Ellison has found a set of Period 7 Oscillators, one as small as having a population of 38 Bits, which have some isolated sparks in one of their phases.

2005-12-11-P7-osc.rle A pair of Diagonal c/4 Double Wickstretchers found by Nicolay Beluchenko.

2005-12-11-P6tagalong.rle A tagalong for the recently discovered Diagonal c/6 Spaceship, found by Nicolay Beluchenko.

2005 December 10

Extensible spaceships


long and short c/3 ships with central p15/5 wick
Hartmut Holzwart, 7 December 2005

Over the past few months, Hartmut Holzwart has constructed a series of spaceships with a variety of shapes, periods, and velocities. The majority have been "greyships" of different types — but here is a random sampling of ships that don't fit neatly into that category:


extensible thin orthogonal 2c/4 spaceship
Hartmut Holzwart, 16 November 2005


extensible p3 spaceship: a p22 wick stabilized by c/3 ships
Hartmut Holzwart, 14 November 2005

Continue reading "Extensible spaceships" More

2005 October 06

More new c/4 Diagonal Spaceships

New c/4 Diagonal Spaceships by Holzwart Harmut Holzwart has found a few new c/4 Diagonal Spaceships.

New c/4 Diagonal Spaceships by Beluchenko Based on them, Nicolay Beluchenko then came up with another set of such spaceships by combining them with parts of other ships found earlier.

2005 September 19

More new c/4 Diagonal Spaceships

New c/4 Diagonal Spaceships Pt.1 Here's another batch of new c/4 Diagonal Spaceships that Nicolay Beluchenko has found.

New c/4 Diagonal Spaceships Pt.2

New c/4 Diagonal Spaceships Pt.3

New c/4 Diagonal Spaceships Pt.4

Harmut Holzwart has extended a few of these new spaceships by adding some tagalongs for which there was previously no spaceship for attachment. New c/4 Diagonal Spaceships Holzwart

2005 September 17

c/6 Diagonal Spaceship

Diagonal c6 spaceship Nicolay Beluchenko has found the first known c/6 Diagonal Spaceship.

(A list of known spaceship speeds)

2005 September 07

More new c/4 Diagonal Spaceships

New C4 Diagonal 1 Nicolay Beluchenko has found another batch of new c/4 Diagonal Spaceships. As before, these are all presented in no particular order.

New C4 Diagonal 2

New C4 Diagonal 3

2005 September 06

Lineship Update

p96 c/12 diagonal lineship: David Bell, 24 June 2005 On June 24th, David Bell produced an optimized version of Jason Summers' original lineship (shown in reduced scale at right -- click the thumbnail for the RLE, or here for a full picture). There have been several further developments along these lines.

p768 c/12 diagonal line burner: dgreene, 25 June 2005 dgreene used some of David Bell's new compact Cordership technology to produce a modified tail section for the revised lineship which repeats at p768 instead of at p96.

[The thumbnail at right shows only the modified tail section -- click here for a picture of the full pattern.]

smaller diagonal c/12 period 96 lineship:  David Bell, 17 July 2005 David Bell followed this with a redesigned diagonal c/12 period 96 lineship. In this variant, the creation of the line at the front is done in pieces which are then welded together to form the line, using the repair techniques described in the "Cutting and Repairing Diagonal Lines" posting. The back end has also been reduced, since a sideways rake is not needed to ignite the line.

Again, only the smaller back end is shown in the thumbnail; a full-sized image is here.

Adjustable-period growing/shrinking Corder-based c/12 lineship:  Nicolay Beluchenko, 17 July 2005; optimization by David Bell. The Cordership at the tail end of the adjustable-period lineship shown at right (full-sized image here) is responsible for igniting the stabilized end of line whenever it gets near to it. Nicolay Beluchenko points out that this Cordership could be adjusted by moving the trailing Cordership by multiples of 22 cells diagonally, rather than 88, if the front of the line were constructed in length-22 segments as well (but this would make the front of the ship much larger).

2005 August 21

More new c/4 Diagonal Spaceships

New C4 Diagonal 0 Nicolay Beluchenko has found a host of new c/4 Diagonal Spaceships. The smallest has only a population of 40 bits. Many of these are related by being made up of simpler subparts, having extensible sections, or by adding tagalongs to previously known spaceships. Except for the sample shown at right, these are all presented in no particular order.

New C4 Diagonal 1

New C4 Diagonal 2

New C4 Diagonal 3

New C4 Diagonal 4

New C4 Diagonal 5

New C4 Diagonal 6

2005 August 17

Anteater Spaceships

Around the end of July, Nicolay Beluchenko and Hartmut Holzwart produced a series of "anteater" spaceship patterns which could provide a moving c/4 diagonal termination point for an oblique wave of "ants". "Ants" wicks are unusually versatile, in that each eight-bit "ant" can follow directly behind the previous ant, or it can be offset by either one or two cells.

In the patterns that follow, each ant must be offset one cell from the previous one. With this configuration, each individual ant is a P1 pattern that travels due south at the speed of light, but the wave of ants as a whole can also be interpreted as a P4 pattern traveling northwest at c/4, thus matching the speed and direction of the c/4 terminal pattern.

c/4 double anteater: Nicolay Beluchenko, 29 July 2005 c/4 diagonal anteater: Nicolay Beluchenko, 29 July 2005 The waves of ants should be assumed to extend to infinity (so don't run these spaceships for too many ticks -- they tend to crash when they run out of ants.) The construction of a matching antstretcher for these anteaters is currently an open problem.

Left: c/4 diagonal anteater: Nicolay Beluchenko, 29 July 2005
Right: c/4 double anteater

anteater-related double puffer based on Hartmut Holzwart's 29-bit spaceship (B29): Nicolay Beluchenko, 29 July 2005 c/4 anteater-related spaceships: Nicolay Beluchenko, 29 July 2005 Left: c/4 anteater-related spaceships
Right: anteater-related double puffer based on Hartmut Holzwart's 29-bit spaceship (B29)

c/4 anteater connected to puffer: Nicolay Beluchenko, 30 July 2005 c/4 anteater connected to puffer: Nicolay Beluchenko, 29 July 2005 Left: c/4 anteater connected to puffer: Nicolay Beluchenko, 29 July 2005
Right: central glide-symmetric anteater element used as a tagalong: Nicolay Beluchenko, 30 July 2005

small anteater based on c/4 domino-spark ship:: Hartmut Holzwart, 4 August 2005 alternate anteaters connected to sparking ships using glide-reflecting tagalong elements: Nicolay Beluchenko, 30 July 2005 Left: alternate anteaters connected to sparking ships using glide-reflecting tagalong elements: Nicolay Beluchenko, 30 July 2005
Right: small anteater based on c/4 domino-spark ship: Hartmut Holzwart, 4 August 2005

2005 August 05

New c/4 Diagonal Tubstretcher

27P4H1V1A2.1 Nicolay Beluchenko has noticed that a previously known spaceship can be converted into a small Tubstretcher. As shown at left, the four blue bits convert the ship into the smallest known puffer of any variety.

74P4H1V1A2.1 This puffer can be combined with a Tub burning fuse, found by Harmut Holzwart, to create spaceships of any length. The smallest, at 74 bits, is shown here. (The Tub fuse is hilighted in blue.)

2005 August 03

New c/4 Diagonal Spaceships

New Diagonal c/4 spaceships Nicolay Beluchenko has found some new c/4 diagonal spaceships. He also noticed that some previously known spaceships can be reworked and combined to yield a series of extensible ships.

New Diagonal c/4 wave

P28 Diagonal Puffer Finally, he also discovered a 150 Bit Period 28 diagonal puffer which creates a Tub and a Beehive every cycle.

Update: 2005-Aug-06

Diagonal C4 Spaceships A few more diagonal spaceships found by Nicolay Beluchenko.

2005 June 18

New Compact Corderships

New 5-engine Cordership  David Bell  5 June 2005 David Bell has constructed a new, compact 5-engine Cordership that contains a releasable sideways glider, and has compiled a series of related results. The pattern at the far right shows a number of ways for the Cordership's northeast edge blocks to be suppressed, allowing the sideways glider to escape.

Paul Tooke's 3-engine Cordership turning an LWSS These new results build on other new Cordership constructions recently -- in particular, a small 3-engine Cordership discovered by Paul Tooke (with the help of Paul Callahan's handy 'gencols' utility) on January 12 of last year. David Bell discovered that it can turn an LWSS 90 degrees, as shown here.

Bell has also produced a series of related Cordership-rake patterns: A Cordership-based glider-to-backward-LWSS reaction
A 'beehive-puller' Cordership
A p96 forward glider rake
A new smaller p384 'Freeze-Tag' spaceship
A reaction converting two forward gliders to an HWSS
p192 backward HWSS rake
A p96 backward HWSS rake
A p768 backward HWSS rake
A p96 forward LWSS rake
A p96 forward MWSS rake
An alternate p96 forward MWSS rake
A p768 forward LWSS rake
A high-period Cordership-based feedback loop
A wide thin p96 backward rake
A p288 'litterbug' spaceship
A p96 backward LWSS rake
An alternate p96 backward LWSS rake
A p96 backward MWSS rake based on a loaf puffer
A backward LWSS puffer based on an eater/tub-with-tail puffer

Related to this last pattern, he notes that a line of tub-with-tails "can support one side of a switch engine without being modified. Two diagonal lines of them can support one or more switch engines at the ends, and one line can support a 3-engine wing component."

Update: 24 June 2005 2:20p

A diagonal c/12 p96 glide-symmetric double backward rake
A p96 three-stage tail producing a double-backward-rake spaceship
A p96 block-staircase puffer tail for the double backward rake
A p96 diagonal c/12 period 96 sideways glider-inserter rake
... And an updated version of Jason Summers' c/12 p96 diagonal lineship: see the new posting on this subject.

2005 June 04

Extensible Wickstretcher-like Spaceship

description Hartmut Holzwart has found a Lightweight Spaceship convoy which consists of a Period 4 wickstretcher head, a Period 19 wick and a Period 4 fuse. Shown is the simplest version with only one copy of the wick and one with two copies of it. (Note that there are no known Period 19 oscillators, so finding stable ends for this wick may take a while, but it could be the foundation for such an oscillator.)

2005 January 09

New Diagonal c/5 Spaceship

86P5H1V1 Jason Summers has found a new diagonal c/5 spaceship. With a population 86 bits in its smallest phase, it becomes the smallest known example for this speed and direction. It is less than one third the size of the next largest example, which has a population 295 bits.

2005 January 04

New c/5 Spaceships

description Paul Tooke has found some new c/5 spaceships.

2004 December 31

New 17c/45 Spaceship: The Caterpillar

Pi Crawler Gabriel Nivasch has announced the construction of a spaceship which travels at the speed of 17c/45. It is based on a "Pi Crawler" reaction, where a Pi Heptomino moves up a string of Blinkers leaving the string undisturbed. This means that multiple Pi Crawlers can use the same string of blinkers, and if multiple tracks are properly positioned, they can interact with each other to act as glider puffers or rakes. These gliders can then be used to create c/2 Orthogonal Spaceships which in turn can run ahead of the Pi Crawlers and lay down the necessary Blinker tracks. For more information on how all this works, see Nivasch's earlier report on the Caterpillar components.

The spaceship itself has a period of 270, and is huge. The dimensions are 4195 cells wide by 330,721 cells deep. Starting with a population of 11,967,399, ranging from 11880063 (gen 113) to 12019156 (gen 210). Nivasch reports that he wrote a program which fitted together 51 different .rle subpatterns that make up the Caterpillar into the final, working pattern. This is the first known spaceship which travels at this speed (0.378c), and the largest object ever actually constructed to date.

Jason Summers has made available a zipped 7.1Meg copy of the .rle file, It has been reported that this .rle file will successfully load and execute with the Life32 program by Johan Bontes, or with Hashlife by Tomas Rokicki. With Life32, just wait a bit for it to load, and be sure to zoom down to a reasonable subsection of the entire pattern, otherwise each generation will take an inordinate amount of time to display. Properly zoomed down, it only takes about a second per generation.

Update: 2005-Jan-03

Gabriel Nivasch has updated his web page to provide a 1:40 scale illustration of the entire object.

2004 December 22

New 2c/5 Spaceship

2c/5 spaceships Harmut Holzwart has found a new 2c/5 spaceship. The red shaded area can be repeated. The lower pattern shows the Order 3 version.

Update: 2004-Dec-30

Turns out that this is not a true spaceship, as there is an unsuppressed spark on the trailing edge, that interferes with the spaceship's operation.

2004 December 17

New 2c/4 and Diagonal c/4 Spaceships

2c/4 spaceships In the past few months, Harmut Holzwart has found a number of new 2c/4 and diagonal c/4 spaceships.
c/4 diag. spaceships